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Monday, October 5, 2009

Home » » Indonesia in Statistic

Indonesia in Statistic


Background

The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. Indonesia's first free parliamentary election after decades of repressive rule took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third-largest democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for past human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face a low intensity separatist movement in Papua.



Geography
Archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean.
Location:
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Area:
total: 1,919,440 sq km land: 1,826,440 sq km water: 93,000 sq km
Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land Boundaries:
total: 2,830 km border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline:
54,716 km
Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
arable land: 11.03% permanent crops: 7.04% other: 81.93% (2005)
Irrigated land:
45,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
Current Environment Issues:
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
International Environment Agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
People
Population:
240,271,522 (July 2009 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 28.1% (male 34,337,341/female 33,162,207) 15-64 years: 66% (male 79,549,569/female 78,918,321) 65 years and over: 6% (male 6,335,208/female 7,968,876) (2009 est.)
Median age:
total: 27.6 years male: 27.1 years female: 28.1 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.136% (2009 est.)
Birth rate:
19.24 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
6.24 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 29.97 deaths/1,000 live births male: 34.93 deaths/1,000 live births female: 24.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.76 years male: 68.26 years female: 73.38 years (2009 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
270,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
8,700 (2007 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Indonesian(s) adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups:
Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)
Religions:
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
Languages:
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 90.4% male: 94% female: 86.8% (2004 est.)

Government
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia conventional short form: Indonesia local long form: Republik Indonesia local short form: Indonesia former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Jakarta geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones
Administrative divisions:
30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat (Irian Jaya Barat), Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta* note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, the 465 regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Independence:
17 August 1945 (declared) note: recognized by the Netherlands on 27 December 1949; in August 2005, the Netherlands announced it recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945
National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution:
August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004; currently hold the 2nd period); Vice President Prof. Dr. Booediono (since October 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Prof. Dr. Booediono (since October 2009) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice president were elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014) election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%
Legislative branch:
People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house, consists of members of DPR and DPD, has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution, does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions elections: last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held on 9 April 2009) election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.5%, Golkar 14.5%, PDI-P 14.03%, PKS 7.88%, PAN 6.01%, PPP 5.32%, PKB 4.94%, Gerindra 4.46% others 22.36%.
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung is the final court of appeal and does not have the power of judicial review (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (invested by the president on 16 August 2003) has the power of judicial review, jurisdiction over the results of a general election, and reviews actions to dismiss a President from office; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006; the Anti-Corruption Court has jurisdiction over corruption cases brought by the independent Corruption Eradication Commission; in 2006, the Constitutional Court declared the mechanism by which the Anti-Corruption Court was established unconstitutional and gave the Parliament until the end of 2009 to pass Anti-Corruption Court legislation
Political parties and leaders:
Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [MS KABAN]; Democratic Party or PD [Hadi UTOMO]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Indonesian Women's Coalition (Koalisi Perempuan - human rights group); Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; National Alliance for Freedom of Religion and Faith; Oil Palm Watch (environmental)
International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador SUDJADNAN Parnohadiningrat chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200 FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110 mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520 telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000 FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922 consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Economy
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has made significant economic advances under the administration of President YUDHOYONO, but faces challenges stemming from the global financial crisis and world economic downturn. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. The government has introduced significant reforms in the financial sector, including in the areas of tax and customs, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market supervision. Indonesia's investment law, passed in March 2007, seeks to address some of the concerns of foreign and domestic investors. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The non-bank financial sector, including pension funds and insurance, remains weak, and despite efforts to broaden and deepen capital markets, they remain underdeveloped. Economic difficulties in early 2008 centered on high global food and oil prices and their impact on Indonesia's poor and on the budget. The onset of the global financial crisis dampened inflationary pressures, but increased risk aversion for emerging market assets resulted in large losses in the stock market, significant depreciation of the rupiah, and a difficult environment for bond issuance. As global demand has slowed and prices for Indonesia's commodity exports have fallen, Indonesia faces the prospect of growth significantly below the 6-plus percent recorded in 2007 and 2008.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$915.9 billion (2008 est.) $863.1 billion (2007) $811.1 billion (2006)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$510.8 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.1% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,900 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13.5% industry: 45.6% services: 40.8% (2008 est.)
Labor force:
112 million (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 42.1% industry: 18.6% services: 39.3% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.4% (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line:
17.8% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6% highest 10%: 28.5% (2002)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39.4 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.1% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
23.6% of GDP (2008)
Budget:
revenues: $101.1 billion expenditures: $101.6 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt:
30.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:
rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
2.8% (2008 est.)
Electricity - production:
142.4 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
121.2 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production:
977,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption:
1.564 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports:
85,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - imports:
672,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:
3.99 billion bbl (1 January 2007 est.)
Natural gas - production:
56 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
23.4 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
32.6 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.659 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance:
$1 billion (2008 est.)
Exports:
$136.8 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners:
Japan 20.7%, US 10.2%, Singapore 9.2%, China 8.5%, South Korea 6.6%, Malaysia 4.5%, India 4.3% (2007)
Imports:
$128.8 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Singapore 13.2%, China 11.5%, Japan 8.8%, Malaysia 8.6%, US 6.4%, Thailand 5.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.5%, South Korea 4.3%, Australia 4% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$51.54 billion (31 December 2008)
Debt - external:
$151.7 billion (30 September 2008)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$63.46 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$4.277 billion (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$111.5 billion (31 December 2008)
Currency (code):
Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 9,698.9 (2008), 9,143 (2007), 9,159.3 (2006), 9,704.7 (2005), 8,938.9 (2004)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

Communications
Telephones in use:
17.828 million (2007)
Cellular Phones in use:
81.835 million (2007)
Telephone system:
general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile cellular subscribership growing rapidly international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks; each with its group of local transmitters) (2006)
Internet country code:
.id
Internet hosts:
753,200 (2008)
Internet users:
13 million (2007)

Transportation
Airports:
652 (2007)
Airports (paved runways):
total: 158 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 15 1,524 to 2,437 m: 51 914 to 1,523 m: 49 under 914 m: 39 (2007)
Airports (unpaved runways):
total: 494 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 27 under 914 m: 462 (2007)
Heliports:
17 (2007)
Pipelines:
condensate 735 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 5,797 km; oil 5,721 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 1,370 km; water 44 km (2008)
Railways:
total: 6,458 km narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:
total: 391,009 km paved: 216,714 km unpaved: 174,295 km (2005)
Waterways:
21,579 km (2008)
Merchant marine:
total: 971 by type: bulk carrier 54, cargo 514, chemical tanker 35, container 80, liquefied gas 7, passenger 44, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 143, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 10, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 4 foreign-owned: 43 (China 2, France 1, Germany 1, Japan 6, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 27, Taiwan 2, UAE 2) registered in other countries: 114 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 1, Hong Kong 7, Liberia 2, Mongolia 1, Panama 31, Singapore 66, unknown 2) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

Military

Military branches:
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 63,800,825 females age 16-49: 61,729,717 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 52,997,922 females age 16-49: 52,503,046 (2009 est.)